Anatomy of the Brachial Plexus in Infant - Medical Illustration, Human Anatomy Drawing
This medical exhibit depicts the anatomy of the brachial plexus in an infant from an anterior (front) view. A head and torso of the baby are shown with a schematic view of the spinal cord and nerve roots for C5, C6, C7, C8 and T1. In addition, there are corresponding color-coded areas showing the regions of the shoulder, arms and upper thorax affected by damage to the nerve roots, as is seen in a shoulder dystocia birth injury during delivery.
What is a Brachial Plexus Injury?\r\nThe brachial plexus is a network of nerves that conducts signals from the spine to the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial plexus injuries are caused by damage to those nerves. Symptoms may include a limp or paralyzed arm, lack of muscle control in the arm, hand, or wrist, and lack of feeling or sensation in the arm or hand. Although injuries can occur at any time, many brachial plexus injuries happen during birth: the baby’s shoulders may become impacted during the birth process causing the brachial plexus nerves to stretch or tear. There are four types of brachial plexus injuries: avulsion, the most severe type, in which the nerve is torn from the spine; rupture, in which the nerve is torn but not at the spinal attachment; neuroma, in which the nerve has tried to heal itself but scar tissue has grown around the injury, putting pressure on the injured nerve and preventing the nerve from conducting signals to the muscles; and neuropraxia or stretch, in which the nerve has been damaged but not torn. Neuropraxia is the most common type of brachial plexus injury.\r\n\r\nIs there any treatment?\r\nSome brachial plexus injuries may heal without treatment. Many children improve or recover by 3 to 4 months of age. Treatment for brachial plexus injuries includes occupational or physical therapy and, in some cases, surgery.\r\n\r\nWhat is the prognosis?\r\nThe site and type of brachial plexus injury determine the prognosis. For avulsion and rupture injuries there is no potential for recovery unless surgical reconnection is made in a timely manner. For neuroma and neuropraxia injuries the potential for recovery varies. Most patients with neuropraxia injuries recover spontaneously with a 90-100% return of function.\r\n\r\nWhat research is being done?\r\nThe NINDS conducts and supports research on injuries to organs and networks within the nervous system, such as the brachial plexus. Much of this research is aimed at finding ways to prevent and treat these disorders. \r\n\r\nSource: The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke\r\nNational Institutes of Health, May 2, 2003.
"Medical Legal Art wins our firm's highest accolades for professionalism and
exhibit quality. In fact, many of the doctors I work with request color
copies of your outstanding artwork to show to patients during the informed
Jeanne Dolan, BSRN, AlNC Legal Nurse Consultant Golden Valley, MN
"You and your company are wonderful. Your service, turnaround time, quality
and price were better than I could have asked for. Please add me to your
long list of satisfied customers."
Robert F. Linton, Jr.
Linton & Hirshman
"I just wanted to let you know that after several days on trial, I settled
[my client's] construction accident case for $4.5 million. Immediately after
the jury was discharged, I spoke with several jurors who told me that they
really appreciated the medical illustrations for their clarity in dealing
with [my client's] devastating injuries. They also expressed their gratitude
in being able to read from a distance all of the notations without
difficulty. Obviously, the boards were visually persuasive. I am certain
that this contributed to our successful result."
Michael Gunzburg, Esq.
Attorney at Law.
New York, NY
"I thought you might want to know that after we sent a copy of your
illustration to the defendants, with a copy to
the insurance company, they increased their offer by an additional million
dollars and the case was settled for $1,900,000.00.
I appreciate your help!"
O. Fayrell Furr, Jr.
Furr, Henshaw & Ohanesian
Myrtle Beach, SC
Medical Legal Art creates medical demonstrative evidence (medical
illustrations, drawings, pictures, graphics, charts, medical animations,
anatomical models, and interactive presentations) for use during legal
proceedings, including research, demand letters, client conferences,
depositions, arbitrations, mediations, settlement conferences, mock jury
trials and for use in the courtroom. We do not provide legal or medical
advice. If you have legal questions, you should find a lawyer with whom you
can discuss your case issues. If you have medical questions, you should seek the advice of a healthcare provider.